Enabling LDAP authentication on MediaWiki is fairly straightforward, but there are a couple tricks and gotchas to watch out for.

First, a couple packages are needed: php-ldap (through your packaged manager) and Extension:LDAP Authentication (download and install as instructed).

This assumes that you already have your Linux server working with your LDAP environment.

First, edit /etc/openldap/ldap.conf and add this line to the bottom:


After all, we trust our own domain, right?

In your LocalSettings.php, add the following:

require_once ("$IP/extensions/LdapAuthentication/LdapAuthentication.php");

$wgAuth = new LdapAuthenticationPlugin();

$wgLDAPDomainNames = array(

$wgLDAPServerNames = array(
'my.domain.com' => 'ldap.domain.com'

$wgLDAPSearchAttributes = array(
'my.domain.com' => 'sAMAccountName'

$wgLDAPBaseDNs = array(
'my.domain.com' => 'dc=my,dc=domain,dc=com'

$wgLDAPEncryptionType = array(
'my.domain.com' => 'ssl'

$wgMinimalPasswordLength = 1;

Just change my.domain.com to your FQDN.

After updating both files, on command line run:

/path/to/wiki/maintenance/php update.php

You should now be able to log in with your domain user. I also disabled anonymous editing in my configuration.

All of the instructions you see online are for much older versions of Asterisk. It makes sense, as a phone system is always highly customized and can get very complicated, very quick. It’s hard to upgrade an in-place system to a newer version, especially in Asterisk’s case where the newer stuff broke a lot of the old stuff. However, for a new setup, why not use the latest and greatest? More security fixes, more features, and hopefully less bugs. The downside? There isn’t much documentation out there for things on the newer systems yet. This means learning from scratch and adapting!

Thankfully, once I learned a little more about how to use extensions.conf and iax.conf, it appears trivial to get a C*Net connection going (although this is after 10+ hours of head abuse by scratching and banging, and elevated blood pressure).

So let’s get started!

C*NET Side:

You have to register and activate your office code first. When all is said and done, you will receive your e-mail from one of the great people over on that side with your activation information. If you haven’t received this e-mail yet, receiving calls won’t work. It’s part of a manual entry process on their Asterisk server to allow connection to yours (it maps your office code to your IP). The most important information from this e-mail is your username. Of course your country code, office code, and thousands block are also good things to know.

Networking Side:

You MUST have port 4569 UDP opened/forwarded to your Asterisk box. You can call out to C*Net without this port opened, but you cannot receive calls. It’s a fairly obscure port number, so security wise it probably won’t be subjected to much abuse, but make sure you have something like fail2ban in place to help with security.

Asterisk Side:

First, make sure the IAX2 module is loaded:

asterisk*CLI> module show like iax
Module                         Description                              Use Count  Status      Support Level
chan_iax2.so                   Inter Asterisk eXchange (Ver 2)          0          Running              core

If it’s not loaded, make sure you don’t have it as a noload line in modules.conf. If you are like me, you might have disabled it along with a host of others.


Next, edit iax.conf to give IAX a route into your extensions.conf. The [username] context must be changed to the username you received in your e-mail.



Note: context can also be changed to whatever context you want in extensions.conf, however I would recommend using one specifically for C*Net, for reasons you will see next. Double check to make sure the names match.



On to the potatoes of the meat and potatoes.

In the [globals] context, add the following:


Change the CNETANI to be whatever yours is. country code + office code + thousands block. Also change MYNAME to your name.

Now, add a new context for the macro that will actually do the dialing out to C*Net. This macro is a heavily modified version of one from Los Angeles Telephone to work with the newer versions of Asterisk. It will not work in versions like 1.8.

exten => s,1,Set(CALLERID(num)=${CNETANI})
exten => s,n,Set(result=${ENUMLOOKUP(+${ARG1},iax2,,1,std.ckts.info)})
exten => s,n,GotoIf($["${result}"!=""]?dialiax)
exten => s,n,Set(result=${ENUMLOOKUP(+${ARG1},sip,,1,std.ckts.info)})
exten => s,n,GotoIf($["${result}"!=""]?dialsip)
exten => s,n,Playback(enum-lookup-failed,noanswer)
exten => s,n,Congestion(10)
exten => s,n,MacroExit
exten => s,n(dialsip),Dial(SIP/${result},120)
exten => s,n,MacroExit
exten => s,n(dialiax),Dial(IAX2/${result},120)
exten => s,n,MacroExit

Basically, it uses something called ENUM lookup to get all the IAX (or SIP) information that Asterisk needs to complete the call to C*NET using the DNS name of std.ckts.info so you don’t have to keep track of IP addresses. This particular macro tries an IAX connection first, tries a SIP connection as a fallback, and then finally fails with a failed lookup message.

Now that we have the macro set up, receiving in and dialing out capabilities can be added. Dialing out uses this macro.

Receiving calls:

Earlier in iax.conf the context “from-cnet” was defined, so that is next to be added:

exten => _X.,1,NoOp(Incomming call from C*NET: ${CALLERID(all)})
exten => _X.,n,GoTo(from-internal,${EXTEN:-3},1)

A couple important notes with this section:

The first line is just for my debugging and flow following process. NoOp just simply spits out to console/log what you tell it to. You can completely remove the first line if you would like, just change the n to 1 on the second line if you do so.

The second line forwards the call to another context, which in my case is “from-internal”. Change this to whichever context you use for your extensions. This is useful so you don’t have to define them again. The -3 part of ${EXTEN:-3} tells it to forward the last 3 numbers of the call, since I use 3 number extensions. Change it to 2 to only forward the last 2, etc. For example, if you dial 1-636-1112, it goes to the from-internal context with the digits 112.

Sending calls:

Here we just need to add a few quick lines. These are in my “from-internal” context, but can be place in whichever context you have set up for dialing out definitions.

; Dial out to C*NET
exten => _7X.,1,NoOp(Dialing out from ${CALLERID(all)} to ${EXTEN:1} through C*Net)
exten => _7X.,n,Macro(dialcnet,${EXTEN:1})
exten => _7X.,n,Playtones(congestion)

A couple important notes:

The first line again is just for debugging/logging. The same modification can be made if desired.

Because I have a few different ways to make calls outbound of my Asterisk, I am now on “dial 7 to get an outside line” for C*Net. I can also dial 8 to dial out on my cell phone (via x-link Bluetooth), and dial 9 to dial out on my VOIP line (I know, getting out of control!).

Finally, save your extensions.conf, reload the IAX module and the dialplan:

asterisk*CLI> module reload chan_iax2.so

asterisk*CLI> dailplan reload



“CAUSE: No such context/extension”

This is most likely an error in your extensions.conf. Even if you have a NoOp command as the very first line, it won’t spit anything out unless there is something correctly configured to do after. In my case, I had assumed I would at least see output from the NoOp command, and that was incorrect and caused hours of high blood pressure.

“CAUSE: No authority found.”

This is an error in the iax.conf configuration. In C*Net’s case, there must be a context with the correct username, and type must be equal to user (type=user).


That’s it! Enjoy C*Net and the great people that are part of it. Don’t forget to sign up for the mailing list. There are a lot of very smart people on it, and most with 20+ years of industry experience.


With DAHDI, this turns out not to be so bad. Once you add the physical hardware, There is just a few DAHDI related commands to run, and a small section of extensions.conf to change.

Note: Throughout I use the parameter -vvvvv to indicate as much as verboseness as possible. I use all 5 v’s from habit because of Asterisk’s console command (more of a make sure it’s as verbose as possible by adding many v’s).

First (after installing the hardware), run dahdi_scan as root to make sure it’s detected. Your output should look similar to mine:

mikerm@asterisk:~$ sudo dahdi_scan -vvvvv
description=Wildcard TDM410P
devicetype=Wildcard TDM410P
location=PCI Bus 00 Slot 12

Then, run dahdi_cfg as to configure DAHDI to accept the current hardware setup:

mikerm@asterisk:~$ sudo dahdi_cfg -vvvvv
DAHDI Tools Version -

DAHDI Version:
Echo Canceller(s): MG2

Channel map:

Channel 01: FXO Kewlstart (Default) (Echo Canceler: mg2) (Slaves: 01)
Channel 02: FXO Kewlstart (Default) (Echo Canceler: mg2) (Slaves: 02)
Channel 04: FXS Kewlstart (Default) (Echo Canceler: mg2) (Slaves: 04)

3 channels to configure.

Setting echocan for channel 1 to mg2
Setting echocan for channel 2 to mg2
Setting echocan for channel 4 to mg2

Now, run dahdi_genconf as root to re-generate the other configuration files to set up signalling:

mikerm@asterisk:~$ sudo dahdi_genconf -vvvvv
Default parameters from /etc/dahdi/genconf_parameters
Generating /etc/dahdi/assigned-spans.conf
Generating /etc/dahdi/system.conf
Generating /etc/asterisk/dahdi-channels.conf

If you have a Digium TDM400P/800P/2400P card, also see: fxotune

If this is the first time configuring DAHDI, make sure “#include /etc/asterisk/dahdi-channels.conf” is under the “channels” context in chan_dahdi.conf:

#include /etc/asterisk/dahdi-channels.conf
----- snip -----


Now we get to play in extensions.conf. If you check out /etc/asterisk/dahdi-channels.conf, you should see an entry similar to this:

;;; line="4 WCTDM/0/3 FXSKS  (EC: MG2 - INACTIVE)"
channel => 4

By default, we now have a context “from-pstn” that we need to either add, or modify in extensions.conf. Here is a part of mine as an example.

exten => s,1,NoOp(Incomming call from PSTN: ${CALLERID(all)})
exten => s,n,JabberSend(asterisk,${mikerm},Incomming call from: ${CALLERID(all)}

Note: Don’t assume that only having NoOp in a context will at least spit out a message if it’s called. It actually doesn’t do anything unless there is something else below it that works correctly.

After a while, Asterisk can spit out a lot of logging, which eventually will take up a large amount of room. Thankfully Ubuntu already has a program installed by default to help get a handle on logs called “logrotate.” This makes it really simple to add more logs to be rotated. Simply create the file below and add in the logs you want to rotate:


/var/log/asterisk/messages /var/log/asterisk/debug /var/log/asterisk/queue_log {
        rotate 7
        /usr/sbin/asterisk -rx 'logger reload' > /dev/null 2>&1

Done! By default, logrotate is scripted to run daily (as seen under /etc/cron.daily).

To take a quick look, this is what the script does:

1st line consists of one or more log paths. The options will apply to all of the logs specified.

missingok – If the log file is missing, go on to the next one without issuing an error message.

rotate 7 – Log files are rotated times before being removed.

notifempty – Do not rotate the log if it is empty.

daily – Logs are rotated daily.

The lines between postrotate and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed after the log file is rotated. The command in the middle tells Asterisk to reload the logger module which re-creates the files.

On Linux, I am familiar with MySQL, and for me it’s the easiest to get going. Asterisk used to include support for MySQL directly (and the config is still there, but not compiled into Asterisk by default anymore), but has since moved to a ODBC structure which offloads the database handling, making it database server agnostic. This is good in the way that it makes writing reports a lot more flexible, but also bad because you have to learn how to configure ODBC also. It’s not as simple as configuring the single ini anymore.

For a few reasons, it is suggested to install/use a MySQL server on another machine. It is safer and more space could be available if there isn’t enough on your Asterisk box. I don’t have that luxury, so I will have the SQL server sit on the server itself for now.

First, install MySQL:

sudo apt-get install mysql-server libmyodbc

During the install it will ask you for a root user password. Please enter a strong password, but one you will remember, as you will need it later.

Now we will need to use MySQL’s CLI client to set up our databases and tables. We will be calling the database “asterisk”, and the standard for CDR reports is a table called “cdr”. Of course, you can create the table in a separate database if you want.

Make a new file to copy all of the lines we need to make the table that CDR will use.

Now, copy and paste the following into a new file, I called it cdr.sql:

cd /tmp
vi cdr.sql

Putting it in /tmp will make the file disappear automatically on reboot. It can really be put anywhere, but this guide assumes that location, so change the path to suit your needs.

Copy and paste the following into the new file:

        calldate datetime NOT NULL default '0000-00-00 00:00:00', 
        clid varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        src varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        dst varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        dcontext varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        channel varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        dstchannel varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        lastapp varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        lastdata varchar(80) NOT NULL default '', 
        duration int(11) NOT NULL default '0', 
        billsec int(11) NOT NULL default '0', 
        disposition varchar(45) NOT NULL default '', 
        amaflags int(11) NOT NULL default '0', 
        accountcode varchar(20) NOT NULL default '', 
        uniqueid varchar(32) NOT NULL default '', 
        userfield varchar(255) NOT NULL default '' 

ALTER TABLE `cdr` ADD INDEX ( `calldate` );
ALTER TABLE `cdr` ADD INDEX ( `dst` );
ALTER TABLE `cdr` ADD INDEX ( `accountcode` );

Now, save and exit. Don’t forget the semicolon on the last line.

Log in to MySQL:

mysql -u root -p

Create a new database:


If you are new to MySQL, every command that completes correctly responds with something similar to:

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

If not, it will tell you the error. 99% of the time it’s a syntax error, so check for spelling, etc. Also, every command must end with a semicolon.

Now, let’s go into the database and create the table:

USE asterisk;

It should now say “Database changed.” We can now create the CDR table. This can be done a few ways. You might be able to copy everything below in directly, or you can copy and paste it into a file on your asterisk box in your home directory (or wherever else that’s convenient, like your home directory).

Next, import the table structure we saved to a file earlier:

SOURCE /tmp/cdr.sql

If there are no errors, then it might say “0 rows affected” even though it actually imported.

Double check and make sure it’s all there:


It should show you 16 rows (it will say how many on the bottom).

Now, let’s create a user for CDR (and CEL):

CREATE USER 'asterisk'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpasswordhere';

I used a random password generator site to generate a very long random password. I highly recommend using the longest, hardest, and strongest password you can bear to use to keep your system secure. These passwords will be stored in plain text in the configuration file, so DO NOT use your “normal” passwords. I immediately wrote the password down in a secure password file I have. Don’t lose this password! It will be needed in a few steps.

Now that all that is done, give this user permissions. For security the user will only be able to add or remove data, not tables or the entire database.

Add permissions:

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON asterisk.* TO 'asterisk'@'localhost';

To double check, you can execute the following command and you should see the permissions listed:

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR 'asterisk'@'localhost';
| Grants for asterisk@localhost                                                                                   |
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'asterisk'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*CCC9275DB00A1C4GH9B756752F9896DBF5EBE395' |
| GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `asterisk`.* TO 'asterisk'@'localhost'                                  |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Now we are done with the MySQL side. type “exit” to leave the console.

Next we will need to configure unixODBC to connect to MySQL. This will vary slightly based on your installation. The file we are looking for is “libmyodbc.so”. Once we know where the file is, we can edit the odbc.ini file to set up a MySQL connection.

First, find and make a note of where libmyodbc.so file is located:

sudo updatedb
locate libmyodbc.so

This usually should return one line. If there is more, look for a path that’s similar to mine:


Do the same for libodbcmyS.so, but without the updatedb command as it’s not needed. Make sure to note both paths.

Edit the /etc/odbcinst.ini to reflect the MySQL setup correctly:

Driver          = /path/to/libmyodbc.so

Description     = MySQL driver
Driver          = /path/to/libmyodbc.so
Setup           = /path/to/libodbcmyS.so

Note: Make sure the [Default] section exists and specifies a driver, otherwise the res_odbc module in Asterisk will bark.

Now, edit the /etc/odbc.ini file (which might be blank) and add the following:

Driver          = MySQL
Description     = MySQL Connector for Asterisk
Server          = localhost
Port            = 3306
Database        = asterisk
username        = asterisk
password        = asteriskpasswordhere
Option          = 3
Socket          = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

Edit /etc/asterisk/res_odbc.conf to say the following:

sanitysql=select 1

Edit /etc/asterisk/cdr_odbc.conf to say the following:


Note: The dsn in cdr_odbc.conf is the dsn specified in res_odbc.conf, not the dsn specified in odbc.ini.

Edit cdr_manager.conf to say the following:

enabled = yes

Finally, edit /etc/ cdr_adaptive_odbc.conf to say the following:

alias start=calldate

NOTE: If you use the sample configs that come with Asterisk, then there is already a couple sections that are similar to this one. I personally backed up the default one, and then emptied it out to only say the above lines. This way, there are no problems. However, if you already have database connection definitions here, make sure to not delete those of course.

Save and exit, and then reload Asterisk:

sudo service asterisk restart

Now you can make a test call where the other end answers, and then hang up. There should be no CDR errors.

You can do a quick check to make sure the data made it after the call:

mysql -u asterisk -p yourasteriskpassword
use asterisk;
select * from cdr;

If there are no records, double check for configuration errors. “dsn” names are case sensitive, and must match exactly.

Whew! That’s it!


There are some commands that can be used to troubleshoot any issues you might have:

In the asterisk console, using “cdr show status” should get you something similar:

asterisk*CLI> cdr show status

Call Detail Record (CDR) settings
  Logging:                    Enabled
  Mode:                       Simple
  Log unanswered calls:       No
  Log congestion:             No

* Registered Backends
    Adaptive ODBC

If not, there are some configuration errors somewhere. Your registered backends section might be different, as I have pared mine down to the minimum, but the there should be at least those 3 listed.

In the asterisk console, the command “odbc show all” should look almost exactly like this:

asterisk*CLI> odbc show all

ODBC DSN Settings

  Name:   asterisk
  DSN:    MySQL-asterisk
    Last connection attempt: 1969-12-31 17:00:00
  Pooled: No
  Connected: Yes

If not, then there is a database connection issue. Check your odbc.ini and odbcinst.ini files to make sure they are correct, that the user/password is correct, and that the user has proper access to the correct database.